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踩刹车踏板突然很费劲-Why is the brake pedal hard to press down suddenly?

作者:广州星展汽车配件有限公司 浏览: 发表时间:2019-12-27 16:40:52



行车故事

那天在路上正常行驶,踩刹车踏板时突然感觉很费劲,刹车踏板根本踩不下去,过了一会再踩刹车踏板,好在刹车恢复正常了,车速也慢了下来。现在想到当时的情形还感觉有些后怕!为何会出现这种状况呢?





在很多汽车的液压刹车系统中,有一个重要的部件,就是真空助力器,它装在刹车踏板和刹车总泵之间,起到助力的作用,用来增加驾驶者踩刹车总泵的力量。我们通常所说的刹车变硬,如果是故障性的问题,通常是真空助力器和相关部件出了故障,下面我们就来了解真空助力器的工作方式和此类故障应该如何检修


真空助力器的工作方式

发动机工作时会吸入空气,通过连接在发动机进气系统上的真空管,刹车真空助力器膜片的一侧会产生真空,而另一侧是正常空气压力,因此产生压力差,利用这个压力差,来加大刹车踏板给予刹车总泵施加的推力。所以当我们踩刹车踏板的时候,会感觉到轻轻一踩刹车踏板就能刹住车。



真空助力器故障的检查

根据真空助力器的工作原理可知,只有在发动机工作的情况下,真空助力器才会起作用。当发动机熄火后,真空助力器中的真空会慢慢消失,所以在刚熄火的时候,刹车踏板能够踩下去,但是踩几脚后,真空消失了就很难再踩动,此时液压刹车系统并不是失灵了,而是在失去了助力的情况下,正常踩下刹车踏板的力量已经不够用了。


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发动机熄火后,踩几下刹车踏板,就会很硬踩不动了;起动发动机后,踩刹车踏板会变软降低,则说明真空助力器是工作的,此时应继续检查真空管是否漏气,导致发动机真空不足。如果真空管漏气,通常会影响发动机怠速,导致怠速不稳或怠速时容易熄火。


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如果助力器上连接的真空管和单向阀没有问题,且故障是偶发现象时有时无,则通常是真空助力器故障,应更换。


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如果积碳堵塞了发动机真空管或导致管口变小,导致真空助力器获得的真空度不够,在连续踩刹车的情况下会感觉刹车越来越硬,而长时间不刹车,再踩刹车又是正常的。


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在高海拔地区,如果脚一直踩着刹车踏板,可能会造成真空助力器的真空度不够,踩刹车时会出现变硬的情况。


刹车系统故障无小事, 我们只有做好日常车辆的检查和养护,才能降低刹车系统出现故障的几率,保证行车安全。



A driving experience

I was driving normally on the road that day. The brake pedal suddenly can’t be pressed down. Fortunately, the brake returned to normal to slow the speed down when I pressed the brake pedal again after a while. I am still so scared as soon as recalling this experience! Why is it so happened? 





There is an important component in the hydraulic brake system of many vehicles, namely the vacuum booster, which is installed between the brake pedal and the brake master cylinder, and acts as a booster to increase the power applied to the master cylinder when the driver is pressing down on the brake pedal. If brake stiffness is due to a fault, usually it is the vacuum booster and related components that have failed. Now let's see how the vacuum booster works and how to detect and repair such failures.


How the vacuum booster works

When the engine is working, it will inhale air. A vacuum is generated on one side of the vacuum brake booster diaphragm by means of a vacuum pipe connected to the engine air intake system, while the other side is the normal air pressure, thus creating a pressure difference that increases the thrust applied by the brake pedal to the brake master cylinder. So when we press the brake pedal, it feels like we can stop the vehicle with a light pressure on the brake pedal.



Vacuum booster troubleshooting

Based on the working principle of the vacuum booster, the vacuum booster will work only if the engine is working. When the engine is turned off, the vacuum in the vacuum booster will gradually disappear, so the brake pedal can be pressed down right after the engine is turned off, but becomes difficult to be pressed down after a few times because the vacuum has disappeared. At this point, the hydraulic brake system is not malfunctioning, but is unable to stop the vehicle by just pressing the brake pedal with normal force given the vacuum loss.


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If the brake pedal becomes stiff after being pressed a few times when the engine is turned off; and becomes soft and depresses after being pressed when the engine is started, then the vacuum booster is working. At this point one should continue to check the vacuum pipe for leakage that can result in insufficient engine vacuum. If the vacuum pipe leaks, it will usually affect the engine’s idle speed, which will cause the engine to shut down in the event of unstable idle speed or when idle.


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If the vacuum pipe and the one-way valve connected to the booster are trouble free, and the fault is occasional, then the vacuum booster is usually faulty and should be replaced.


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If carbon deposits clog the engine vacuum pipe or cause the nozzle to become smaller, the vacuum booster may not have enough vacuum, so that it feels stiffer and stiffer when the brake is pressed consecutively, but feels normal when the brake is pressed again after a long time.


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In high altitude regions, if the foot is constantly pressed on the brake pedal, the vacuum booster may not have enough vacuum, so that it feels stiff when the brake is pressed.


Nothing is unimportant in brake system failure. Only through regular vehicle inspection and maintenance the chance of brake system failure be reduced, ensuring driving safety.




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