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冬季暖车要注意方法-Tips on vehicles' warm-up for cold start in winter

作者:广州星展汽车配件有限公司 浏览: 发表时间:2019-12-27 15:40:26

冬季气温低,高纬度地区更是非常寒冷。当车辆在低温环境下停放一夜之后,用户再次起动时会选择让车辆先原地怠速作为“热身”,等水温表指数超过60℃再驶上道路。然而,网上也有很多言论说,车辆冷起动根本无需暖车。那么,究竟应该听谁的?

专业人员给出的结论是:

须适当暖车,但切勿暖车过度,

同时还要注意方法。


暖车不当,会带来一系列不良影响


 1.长时间暖车会增加积炭

寒冬季节,冷车时冷却液的温度非常低。冷却液温度传感器会将温度信号传递给ECU,作为冷起动时增加喷油量的参考。怠速暖车时,进气量很低,但由于发动机处于冷机状态,需要增加喷油量以保持发动机持续运转,同时为三元催化器加热。因此,冷车起动后的怠速工况处于混合气过浓的状态。如果不稍稍提高发动机转速加快温度上升,而是长期以怠速工况来暖车,那么过浓的混合气会造成燃烧室内的不充分燃烧,形成很多积炭,附着在燃烧室内和气门周围。

2.冷车怠速尾气污染严重

上文介绍过,在冷起动后长时间怠速,会使发动机长期工作在混合气过浓的工况下,这种情况的另一个弊端是尾气中的污染物含量升高。冷车状态起动后,发动机逐渐升温,同时帮助三元催化器提升温度以达到正常的工作状态。若发动机总是以怠速转速运行,三元催化器的温度提升就会比较慢,尾气中的污染物也就得不到有效处理。一些车主还喜欢在怠速热车时,站在车辆周围吸根烟,那尾气中的污染物就都被车主自己“享用”了。

3.浪费燃油

冷机状态下,发动机运转时的喷油量会增加,这毫无疑问会浪费掉不少的燃油。我们停车的位置多数是在住宅区、车库或支路的路边,通常与主干道之间还存在一定距离。与其说任由原地怠速白白消耗燃油,不如让发动机以低转速工况,驱动车辆慢速行驶到主干道后再加速进入正常行驶模式。这样既可以实现暖车,又减少了燃油的无意义消耗,还不会浪费太多我们早上的时间。



推荐的起动、暖车方法


步骤一、接通电源,稍等片刻

将车钥匙(或起动按键)调整至电源接通的挡位,稍等约30秒。全车通电,各个控制单元会完成自检,同时燃油泵会开始工作,将油箱内的燃油输送给发动机,恢复燃油系统内的压力。若不经过这个过程,在冷车状态下直接起动发动机,通常第一次起动时会显得有些迟缓,因为燃油还没有到位。

步骤二、起动发动机,怠速运转片刻

车辆隔夜停放后,发动机内部的机油几乎全部都会回到油底壳内。当车辆再次起动,机油泵运转会将机油再次输送给发动机各个部件。这需要一个过程,我们不必纠结这个过程需要多久,只需在发动机运转超过30秒后再让车辆行驶(提高发动机负载)。这时发动机各个运动部件已经得到机油的润滑,有效避免严重磨损。

步骤三、低转速缓慢行驶,让发动机升温

冷车起动之后,让发动机以怠速运转大约30秒后,发动机的怠速转速会比刚起动时有所下降。当发动机转速下降并稳定住之后,即可挂挡开始行驶。但此时由于发动机温度依旧比较低,因此不要提高发动机转速,应以每分钟不高于2000转左右的转速平稳行驶一段距离,待水温表指示开始动作,即发动机温度达到60℃后,再升高转速,加速行驶。


Winter is always cold especially in high latitude areas. When vehicles are parked for overnight in low temperature, “warm-up” at idling speed is necessary before they are restarted. It is suggested not to drive vehicles on road before the water gauge passes 60℃. However, different opinions from internet believe that it is not necessary to warm up in cold start at all. Whom on earth shall we follow then? 

Professionals give a conclusion that 

warm-up is necessary but never over acted, 

and in the meanwhile,

 it should follow the proper ways.


Improper warm-up will bring about adverse effects


I. Long time warm-up will accumulate carbon deposit

Engine coolant will be in very low temperature when vehicles stop in cold winter. The temperature sensor of the coolant will transfer the temperature signal to ECU as a reference for increasing fuel injection in cold start. When vehicles warm up at idling speed, the air volume intake is quite small, and then the engine in cold state requires more fuel volume injection to keep on running and heat the three-way catalyst. In this case, when vehicles start from cold state at idling speed, the mixture will be over-concentrated. Warming up vehicles at idling speed for long without increasing engine speed to heat up quickly, the over concentrated mixture will not be able to burn completely in the combustion room accumulating lots of carbon deposit in the combustion room and around the valves. 

II.Exhaust pollution from cold idling is serious

From the context above, long idling after cold start will leave the engine working in the condition of mixture over concentrated in long term, which gives rise to the high pollutent content in the exhaust. When vehicles start from cold state, engines will heat up gradually, assisting three-way catalysts to raise the temperature to normal working state. If the engine runs at idling speed all the way, the temperature of three-way catalyst will be raised too slow to dispose the pollutant in the exhaust effectively. Some friends even prefer to have a smoke nearby the vehicles which are idling to warm up, in which case, they are actually taking in the pollutents of the exhaust.  

III.Waste of fuel

Fuel injection will increase when engine runs from cold state, which for sure wastes plenty of fuel.  In most cases, vehicles are always parked in residential areas, garages or roadsides, away from main road. On account of this, it is better to drive the vehicles slowly to the main road and accelerate to normal speed rather than idling in-situ wasting of fuel. In this way, vehicles can be warmed up without wasting your time in the morning and in the meanwhile avoiding fuel waste. 



Recommended way of starts and warm-ups


Step one:  connect the power and wait for a while

Turn the key (or press the button) to the position where the power is on, and wait for about 30 seconds. After power on, each control unit will finish self-inspection, and fuel pumps in the meanwhile work to transmit the fuel in the tank to the engine, recovering the pressure in the fuel system. Without this process, if the engine is started directly in the cold state, then the first start is usually tardy because the fuel is not in place yet.

Step two:  start the engine and idle for a moment

The engine oil will be almost all back to the oil sump after the vehicle parks overnight. When the vehicle restarts, the oil pump will work to transport the oil to each individual part of the engine again, which takes a process.  We do not need to worry about how long this process will take, just move the vehicle after the engine runs for 30 seconds (increase the engine load), when all the moving parts of the engine have been lubricated by oil to be free of severe wear and tear effectively.

Step three: drive slowly at low speed to heat up the engine

After the vehicle starts from cold state, let the engine run idling for 30 seconds, and then the idling speed will slow down than when it starts. As soon as the engine speed slows down and gets stable, it is time to gear forward and move.  But at this moment, the engine temperature is still very low, therefore it is better not accelerate the engine speed, but driving the vehicle for a while at 2000R per minute. Do not accelerate to speed up until the water temperature gauge moves to show the engine temperature passes 60℃.


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