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制动与这些传感器密不可分-Indispensable sensors

作者:广州星展汽车配件有限公司 浏览: 发表时间:2019-12-27 15:31:23

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车辆的制动系统早已不再是司机踩踏板、制动盘片摩擦让车轮减速这么简单。制动助力、制动防抱死、车身稳定,以及高级驾驶辅助等功能的出现,让驾驶员所需的制动操作技术大大简化。而若是制动系统存在故障,也会对驾驶员发出提示。这一切,与传感器在制动系统中的应用密切相关。今天,我们就来聊聊制动系统中几种主要传感器的作用


1.制动片磨损监测

车辆前制动片的摩擦材料靠近钢背的位置连接一根带插接器的线束,这根线束内部有两根导线,并且在没入制动摩擦片的一端是连通的。控制单元通过轮速传感器的线束对其供电,并监测这段线路的电阻。当摩擦材料消耗到极限,制动片上的导线会暴露出来并被磨断。此时,控制单元会监测到这段线束为断路(电阻无限大),随即在仪表板发出制动报警提示。


2.轮速传感器

轮速传感器的作用是实时监测车轮转速,作为ABS泵向各个车轮分配制动力的参考数据。ABS泵通过读取轮速传感器信号,判断各个车轮之间的转速差,来调节单个制动分泵的制动力度。若ABS泵发现某个车轮的转速不正常(明显高于或低于其他车轮),便会加大或减小这个车轮的制动力度,避免制动跑偏和抱死。轮速传感器故障,仪表板会点亮ABS故障报警灯。


3.制动液液位传感器

在现代化汽车的制动系统中,制动液负责将驾驶员脚踩制动踏板的力量传递给四个车轮的制动分泵。制动管路中有充足的制动液,是液力可以有效推动制动分泵活塞的重要前提。制动液罐位于一辆车液力制动管路的最高处,这里设置有一个液位传感器。这个传感器利用制动液导电性传递信号,当液位下降,传感器的电极会暴露在空气中无法导电,引发仪表板报警。


4.ACC/ADAS雷达

发达的电子技术可以让汽车更加智能和安全,很多汽车都搭载了自适应巡航ACC和自动紧急制动AEB等功能。这些驾驶辅助功能可以实现汽车的自主制动,通过安装在车辆前杠部位的激光雷达、毫米波雷达和超声波雷达来检测车辆与前方障碍物之间的距离。但是,电子设备很难保证不出现故障,当这些雷达出了问题,车辆仪表板通常会出现ACC故障报警等提示。


5.制动盘温度传感器

制动力会因为制动盘、片过热而出现衰退。一些高性能车,以及性能改装车会配备制动盘温度传感器,用于感知车辆制动系统的温度。这是一种非接触式的温度传感器,通过接收热辐射并换算成温度显示给驾驶员。而更高级的应用是通过这个温度信号,驱动制动通风口处的风板电机来控制散热风量。可让制动盘快速升温到工作温度,也可在过热时加大降温风量。


6.制动信号传感器

开自动挡车型的车主都知道,从P挡挂入R挡,需要踩制动。此时,制动灯开关(左)会被接通,电信号会点亮制动灯,同时传递给发动机和变速器,作为激活信号。部分车型的发动机只有读取到这个信号才能起动,自动变速器也必须读到这个信号才会允许挂入R挡。此外,会有少数车型用制动压力传感器(右)信号代替制动灯信号。因此,如果上述传感器故障,会造成车辆无法从P挡挂入R挡,以及发动机起动异常。


除此之外,ABS泵、驻车制动电机等部件也都具有一定的自诊断功能,这些部件出现故障,也会在仪表板上或中央控制台上发出警告提示。


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Vehicles brake system today has already go far beyond the simple way that a driver presses the brake pedal and then the vehicle decelerates under the friction of brake pads and brake discs. Brake booster, brake anti-lock, body stability, and the emerging of advanced driving assistance greatly simplify the brake operation technology required to the drivers. Once there is something wrong to the brake system, a notice will be prompt to the drivers. All of these are in close relation to the application of sensors in the braking system. Today, let’s have a look at the roles that the main sensors play in the braking system.


Monitor the wear to brake pads

Right close to the backing plate of the front brake pads, the friction material is connected to a cable attaching with a connector. There are two wires inside the cable and they are interconnected at the end to the brake plate. The control unit supplies power to them through the wheel speed sensor and monitors the resistance of the wires. When the friction material wears to its extreme, the wires will be exposed and worn off to be detected as open circuits (resistance is infinite) by the control unit. Then the dashboard will prompt brake alarms. 


Wheel speed sensor

The wheel speed sensor works to monitor the wheel speed in real time, as the data reference of ABS pump that is distributing brake forces to each wheel. By reading the signal from the wheel speed sensor, the ABS pump can tell the speed difference of the wheels and make adjustment of the brake force to each individual brake wheel cylinder. Once the ABS pump feels that one wheel speed is abnormal (obviously faster or slower than others), it will amplify or abate the brake force on this wheel to avoid brake deviation or brake lock.


Brake fluid level sensor

In the brake system of modern cars, brake fluid transmits the drivers’ pressing force on brake pedals to the brake cylinders of four wheels. Sufficient brake fluid in brake hoses is the important premise that hydraulic power can push the pistons of brake wheel cylinders effectively. The brake fluid tank is positioned on top of hydraulic brake hoses, with a fluid level sensor that can make use of the conductivity of brake fluid to transmit signals. When the fluid level drops, the electrodes of the sensor will be exposed in the air, failing to be conductive, and then alarms will be prompted on the dash board.


ACC/ADAS radar

Advanced electronic technology enables the vehicles nowadays more intelligent and more secure, and many vehicles are equipped with self-adaptable cruise control (ACC) and automatic emergency brake (AEB). Those driving assisting functions make autos autonomous braking come true.  Lidar, millimeter-wave radar or ultrasonic wave radar installed on front bumpers of vehicles can detect the distance between vehicles and the obstacles ahead.  Electronic equipment however is hardly to be free of break-down.  When something goes wrong with those radars, vehicles dashboard will show a warning sign of ACC failure etc.


Brake disc temperature sensor

Brake force will decline due to the overheating of brake pads and brake discs.  Some high-performance vehicles or vehicles with modifications are used to equipping with brake-disc-temperature-sensors to tell the temperature of the brake system.  This is a non-contact temperature sensor converting the heat radiation received into temperature showing to the drivers.  One more advanced application of this temperature signal is to drive the wind-plate motor at the brake vents to control the cooling air volume, getting the brake discs to heat up quickly to normal working temperature, or increasing cooling air volume at overheating. 


Brake signal sensor

It is well known to drivers of automatic transmission vehicles that brake pedals should be stepped down when the gear is switched from P to R. And then the brake light switch (left) will be turned on, and the electrical signal that lights up the brake lights will be transmitted to both the engine and the transmission as an activating signal.  Some vehicle engines can only start after reading this signal, and the automatic transmission can only be able to hang in R gear after receiving this signal.  In other cases, a few vehicle models substitute a break pressure sensor (right) for the brake light signal. Once there is any problem to the sensors above, the gears of the vehicles will not be able to transfer from P to R, and the engine will show abnormal at starting. 


In addition, some other parts such as ABS pumps, or parking brake motors etc., also bear the function of self-diagnose, and once there is something wrong with them, alarms will be prompt on the dashboard or the central console. 

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