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发动机水温高?这些是祸因-What cause the water temperature in engine to rise?

作者:Remsa耐磨士 浏览: 发表时间:2019-07-12 13:48:31

开车外出,很多人可能都并不会十分关注发动机的水温。汽车仪表板上的水温表读数,直接反映着发动机的工作温度。虽然俗称水温表,但发动机冷却系统中流淌的液体并不是水,而是专用的冷却液。


发动机冷却液的最佳工作温度是90℃左右,在这个温度下,可以确保发动机最佳的工作状态和效率。而当发生水温高问题,会导致发动机性能下降,严重时会导致发动机异常磨损,甚至机械件的变形和损坏。那么今天我们就来聊聊,引起水温不正常的因素都有哪些


1

冷却液不足

冷却液是保持发动机运行温度的重要前提(极少数风冷发动机除外),它可以将内燃机运转时多余的热量转移到冷却器,并散发掉。因此,如果发动机冷却系统中的冷却液不足,则发动机一定会在运转过程中出现过热的情况。


冷却液不足的重要原因之一是系统存在泄漏点,其中比较常见的主要是管路接口密封不严、发动机冷却器破损、冷却液罐泄漏、冷却液泵与缸体之间的缝隙,以及节温器壳体缝隙等。需要冷却液协助散热的零部件越多,管路越复杂,发生泄漏的可能性就越大(比如,水冷发电机经常会成为冷却液的泄漏点)。


如果冷却系统长期泄漏而车主又并不知道,那么最终等冷却液流失到一定程度,就会出现发动机过热的情况,也就是常说的“开锅”。


2


散热器故障

散热器学名热交换器,其作用是将流经散热器片的冷却液的热量交换到空气中,达到降温的作用。因此,如果散热器的管路因为杂质沉淀过多而堵塞,则散热器的散热性能一定会大打折扣,引起水温过高。


另外,每当春季和秋季,大家也需要留意一下散热器前侧附着的杨絮、柳絮和落叶等杂物。因为这些附着物会阻碍空气带走冷却液的热量,造成水温升高。


3


节温器

节温器的作用是切换冷却液的大、小循环模式。其工作原理是用一块固定形状的石蜡支撑着一只处于拉长状态的弹簧,当水温升高,石蜡遵循自身物理特性开始变软,无法抵消弹簧回复力,节温器的体积就此减小,从而打开大循环水路。


早期的节温器是纯机械部件,有可能出现卡滞的情况,无法切换成大循环,冷却液无法进入散热器进行冷却,造成水温高。另外,比较先进的新车型装备了电子节温器,通过接收水温传感器信号来切换大、小循环。若这种机电装置出现故障,也可能造成水温高的情况。


4

其他原因

除了上述提到的故障之外,以下原因也可能引起发动机水温高的问题。


冷却液泵因机械损伤会造成工作效率差,造成冷却液循环速度慢,影响散热效果。


电子扇叶片损伤或转速无法随水温升高而升挡,会影响冷却器的散热效果,造成水温高。


若冷却系统的水温传感器或其线路出现故障,发出错误的高水温信号,仪表板上的水温表会指示温度高。


加装的发动机底护板和改装的涡轮增压系统中央冷却器,也会造成冷却液和机油散热效果变差,因此各位车主在为爱车进行加装和改装时也需要考虑冷却系统的情况。


各位车友,以上内容是不是让你对汽车水温高问题有了更深的了解呢?快去关注一下自己爱车冷却系统的状态吧!


分享更多后市场领域的干货内容,敬请关注 Remsa Brake 公众号



People traveling by vehicles seldom care about the water temperature in engine. The water-thermometer on the dash board can indicate directly the working temperature of the engine. Though it is called water-thermometer, the liquid inside the engine cooling system is not water but a special coolant. 


The optimal working temperature for engine coolant is about 90℃, at which the engine can be assured to reach the best working condition and efficiency. Rising water temperature will decline the engine performance, or result in abnormal wear to the engine in severe cases, or even worse cause the deformation or damage to the mechanical parts.  Next let's talk about those abnormal factors that cause the water temperature to rise


1


Coolant is in shortage

Coolant is an important premise to keep engines working in proper temperature (air-cooled engine is excluded). It transfers the extra heat of the working internal combustion engine to the cooling unit and then dissipates them. Therefore, if there is not enough coolant in the engine cooling system, overheating will occur in the working process of the engine.  


Somewhere leaking is one of the important reasons for the shortage of coolant. The leaking normally happens when the hoses connections are not well sealed, the cooling unit is damaged, the coolant tank is leaking, or at the gaps between the coolant pump and cylinder or thermostat housing. The more components involve in the heat dissipation by coolant and the more complex for the hoses, the more likely to have leaking (e.g. leaking always happens in water-cooled generator).


If the cooling system leaks for long without being noticed by the driver, overheating also known as “boils” will happens when the coolant runs out to a certain degree.


2

Radiators break down

Radiators officially called heat exchangers, transfer the heat of the coolant flowing through radiators into air to decrease temperature. Therefore, once radiators are clogged by overmuch impurities deposit, the heat dissipation performance of radiators will be significantly degraded causing water temperature to rise. 


Moreover, when spring or autumn comes, we should pay attention to sundries like catkins and fallen leaves clinging to the front of radiators.  Those sundries will impede air taking away the heat from the coolant to bring water temperature high.


3

Thermostat

A thermostat is used for switching long loop circulation and short loop circulation of coolant. Its working principle is to support an elongated spring with a piece of shape-fixed wax, and when water temperature rises, the wax will get soft due to its physical characteristic which make it not be able to offset the restoring force of the spring. Then the volume of the thermostat is reduced to have coolant flowing in the long loop circulation.


The purely mechanical thermostats in early days may get stuck failing to switch the mode into long loop circulation which makes the coolant unable to be into the radiators for cooling and then the water temperature rises. 


4

Other reasons

Besides the problems above, the points below also possibly lead to high water temperature in engines.


Because of mechanical damages the coolant pumps will be in poor working efficiency leading to slow coolant circulation to lower the heat dissipation efficiency.


Damaged electric fans or fan rotation speed that can’t shift up with rising water temperature, also affect the heat dissipation of the cooling unit adversely to heat up the water temperature. 


Once there are some problems to the water temperature sensor or lines in the cooling system, a wrongly high water temperature signal will be sent out and the water thermometer will indicate the temperature high on the dash board.


Additional installed engine bottom guard and modified turbocharging system may also decline the heat dissipation efficiency of the coolant and engine oil. So it is necessary to take the cooling system into account when you install or modify your vehicles.


Have the article above brought you a deep understanding to vehicles water temperature?  And you do have to check the cooling system in your vehicles every now and then. 


For more excellent stories about aftermarket, please follow our Wechat public account Remsa Brake.



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